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About the Maine Music Box Project
Collections
Partnership
Instructional Channel
Project Staff

User Information
Browsers
Listening to music
What is Scorch and how do I use it?
Tips on Searching the Database
Tips on Browsing the Database
Viewing Images
Use and Reproduction
Copyright and Citation
Privacy Policy
Sensitive Materials
Obtaining the actual sheet music

Technical Information
System Design, Indexing and Processing
Web Interface
Lyrics
Metadata
Inventory Control System
Data Delivery and Storage
Preservation Copies
Creating Associated Sound Files
System Hardware / Storage
Commercial Digitization – VTLS
Site Design

Maine Music Box Collections

Five collections of music manuscript scores and sheet music, about 22,641 titles, were selected for digitization and inclusion in the pilot project. Four collections are from the Bagaduce Music Library and one from the Bangor Public Library. These collections are either unique or rare, of historical importance, and in their fragile print condition only available to a limited number of researchers. By digitizing these collections the libraries are making access for the music teaching community to these rich collections easier and instantaneous. With important early works deteriorating quickly because of poor paper quality, digitization is the only way to economically store the volume of scores and preserve them for future generations.

Music published after 1923 is not in the public domain. The Maine Music Box collections contain an estimated 62% of the sheet music in the public domain and 38% of the sheet music still under copyright protection. Users will find a thumbnail image and a text record only. Associated files (images of the score and sound files ) for sheet music that is published after 1923 do not display.

Vocal, Popular Sheet Music Collection consists of over 16,500 pieces of popular American music representing the many vocal styles from the late nineteenth through the twentieth century.

Parlor Salon Collection consists of 3, 569 scores organized in three unique collections: Vocal Parlor/Salon, Piano Parlor/Salon and Violin Parlor/Salon

Music for Two Pianos Eight Hands consists of 223 rare scores that are out-of-print and/or out-of-copyright

Maine Collection consists of over 2,200 pieces ranging from 1845-1997 and includes keyboard, choral, vocal and instrumental music.

Haywood Jones Collection (Bangor Public Library) consists of 28 original manuscript scores of primarily marches and school songs, composed by Haywood Jones for local high school bands in Bangor and New England.

Vocal, Popular Sheet Music Collection (Bagaduce Music Lending Library)consists of over 16,500 pieces of popular American music representing the many vocal styles from the late nineteenth through the twentieth century. While the collection spans the years 1865 to 1990, the strength of the collection is in music published between 1920 and late 1990. The collection has been cataloged and organized under 26 topics that describe different aspects of American life: romanticlove, broken hearts; transportationcars, boats, railroads; the seaships, harbors, lighthouses; patrioticwar, elections, peace; geographical placesrivers, mountains, countries; humor; holidays, stars of musical theater and film; period musicblues, jazz, ragtime, waltzes, marches. These songs, together with the illustrated, color sheet music covers (engravings, lithographs, photographs) are a valuable resource for the history, social life and popular culture of America.

Parlor Salon Collection (Bagaduce Music Lending Library) consists of 3, 569 scores organized in three unique collections: Vocal Parlor/Salon, Piano Parlor/Salon and Violin Parlor/Salon. This music was composed, published and widely played from the mid-19th century (pre Civil War) until approximately World War I. It was performed in homes (parlors) and salons in intimate circles all over the world. This genre of music is generally unavailable to the public, and only a few pieces have survived in private collections. Like the Vocal, Popular Sheet Music Collection (see above) this collection also reflects American society, culture and history. The collection is also an important resource for music history, serving to help students develop a better understanding of the progression of the art of composition and the mastery of the then traditional musical instruments.

Music for Two Pianos Eight Hands (Bagaduce Music Lending Library) consists of 223 rare scores that are out-of-print and/or out-of-copyright. These pieces are almost entirely arrangements of orchestral and chamber ensemble works. The scores are highly sought-after by teachers, and students value them as a vehicle for learning ensemble techniques, as there is little opportunity to practice them otherwise. The music is also in great demand by amateur musicians who enjoy playing major instrumental works.

Maine Collection (Bagaduce Music Lending Library) consists of over 2,200 pieces ranging from 1845-1997 and includes keyboard, choral, vocal and instrumental music. It is the largest known collection of music by Maine composers or about Maine. The collection originated at the Maine State Library and was donated to the Bagaduce Library. A rich tool for developing Maine ties in the school music curriculum, this collection is also of significance to scholars of Maine's history.

Haywood Jones Collection (Bangor Public Library) consists of 28 original manuscript scores of primarily marches and school songs, composed by Haywood Jones for local high school bands in Bangor and New England. Jones was an amateur musician and composer whose popular marches and school songs continue to be played by bands throughout the region and nationally. The "town band" is a New England tradition and one that still thrives in Maine's communities. The preservation of these scores is important to the social history of the region, and access to them would benefit a broad community of users.

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Partnership

The Raymond H. Fogler Library at the University of Maine initiated this project partnership with the Bagaduce Music Lending Library, a unique, nonprofit organization that collects and lends printed music to professional musicians and educational institutions, and the Bangor Public Library, which serves as the music library for the Bangor Symphony Orchestra (the oldest continuously performing community orchestra in the U.S.).

This project grew out of the University of Maine's desire to leverage its investment in information technology infrastructure by supporting access to significant public library music collections in a digital learning environment for educators, scholars and students. The partnership envisioned broadening access to music literature through digitization, and providing access to images of scores and cover art for viewing, along with the ability to hear a musical rendition of the score.

Enhanced with software options to control playback, tempo and sounds, the use of automatic expression, and to change instrumentation and key, the music collection would be an interactive tool that enriches the learning experience. Discussions with music faculty at the University and teachers from area K-12 schools provided further insight into how the music digital library could be integrated locally into teaching and support music education anywhere.

Instructional Channel

The Maine Music Box includes images of musical scores, lyrics, midi sound files and other files. The materials are useful for instruction in music and many other fields (art, literature and social studies, to name a few).

If you are an instructor and would like to access the instructional module of the Maine Music Box, please request an Instructor's Account. If you are a student who would like to use the instructional module, please contact your instructor.


Using the Instructional Module

Teachers and the Maine Music Box: The Instructional side of the Music Box is a password-protected instructional interface available to instructors who request access. The instructor selects a list of music from the database and builds a lesson around the music with specific assignment directions. The lesson is then emailed to students, along with a student login. Students log in to the Maine Music Box to access the lesson instructions with links to the selected music scores.

The Instructional Channel is a versatile teaching facility for teachers of music, social studies, history, the arts, and other disciplines. Lyrics, fully searchable by keyword, offer rich textual material for social, historical, and literary purposes. Sheet music covers are a treasure-trove of period art and advertising; vocal music is useful for the teaching of voice, and the musical scores themselves, as well as the MIDI files and Scorch files, are an invaluable musical resource. The capacity of Scorch files for transposition to other keys can greatly simplify the preparation of band arrangements, aiding in teaching or arranging, transposition, and composition.

The password-protected instructional module gives instructors full access to music titles still in copyright. The instructor's selections may include this copyright-protected material, which is not available to the general public on the search/browse channel of the Maine Music Box.

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Project Staff

Marilyn Lutz, Co-Director
Kurt Stoll, Co-Director
Patrick Harris, Data Coordinator
Gene Daigle, Systems Administrator
Sharon Fitzgerald, Metadata Specialist
Matthew Aplin, Cataloger
Nancy Lewis, Music Librarian
Programming, Trefoil Corporation
Graphic and Instructional Design, Pine Graphics
Adam Raymond, DVD Production
Student Music Editors: Kelsey Lutz, Michael Dwyer

User Information
Browsers
Listening to music
What is Scorch and how do I use it?
Tips on Searching the Database
Tips on Browsing the Database
Viewing Images
Use and Reproduction
Copyright and Citation
Privacy Policy
Sensitive Materials
Obtaining the actual sheet music

Browsers
The Maine Music Box has been designed to function with all recent web browsers. Due to differences in web browsers, displays may not be uniform. The full functionality of the site may best be obtained with later versions (versions 5 and 6) of Internet Explorer (IE) for Windows and Opera for Macintosh )OS 8.6-9.2, and IE and Netscape for Macintosh OS X.

Listening to Music
One or two audio files may be associated with music scores that were published prior to 1923 and are in the public domain: MIDI and Scorch.

A computer generated MIDI file requires an MP3 compatible player to listen to associated MIDI files. Most Web browsers come bundled with an mp3 player, but others players are available as free downloads. See Quicktime or RealOne.

Music published after 1923 is not in the public domain. Associated images, sound files or lyrics do not display for music published after 1923.

What is Scorch and how do I use it?

The project's Curriculum Advisory Board selected scores that have been saved to the "Scorch" format. Files saved in Scorch format are created using Sibelius software. A Scorch file is interactive: it allows users to view the Scorch formatted score within a web page and listen to the score as a cursor follows the sound played back. There are also options to change the key, tempo and instrumentation of the score.

1 Turn pages
2 Changes which device you use for playback.
3 Playback controls and tempo slider.* Click play button to play from the start, or click on the score to play from that point or stop
4 Change top instrument or key*
5 Save*
6 Print*
7 Scorch information and updates

Use Page Up/Page Down and the up/down arrow keys to scroll up and down the score.

To play music in the background while you work, just set Scorch playing, then minimize the window!

*Not available for all scores. Some scores may only play an excerpt.

(To find out what version of Scorch you are using, Control-click (Mac) or right-click (Windows) on the Scorch window, then click About Scorch.)

Scorch Plugin: Some scores may provide a link to a "Scorch" file which requires a compatible plug in order to listen and interact with the associated file. You can obtain the Scorch Plugin using the link below.

Scorch downloads and installs automatically on Internet Explorer for Windows. If you have other web browsers installed on your computer and would like to use Scorch, you may need to download and install the Scorch installer: http://www.sibelius.com/products/scorch.

On Macintosh computers running System 8.6 to 9.2, the Scorch plugin is only compatible with the Opera browser, which may be downloaded from the link below. Under Mac OS X, however, Scorch works with all the major web browsers, including Internet Explorer 5.1, Netscape 6, Opera 5, and OmniWeb 4.1.

Quicktime Quicktime RealAudio RealAudio Sibelius Scorch Sibelius Scorch Opera browser

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Tips on Searching the Database

  • Keyword search of the database on the home page is a full text search that includes titles, names, subjects, publishers, notes and lyrics.

  • Keyword search of the music collection enables a narrower search that may be limited by date range, and further limited by title, name, subject, and lyrics. Searches limited to subject will search music subjects only. To search subjects associated with cover art use the Browse or Search the cover art option.

  • When more than one word is entered for any type of search, the results retrieved will include all records where one or more of the search terms was found.

  • Browse or Search sheet music cover art: You may browse the sheet music cover art by selecting a subject from the pull down menu, or search for subject or name associated with the cover art such as illustrator, lithographer, engraver.

  • Enter personal names using either last name or first name or both. If first and last name are specified, search results will include all occurrences of either name. For example, Berlin Irving or Irving Berlin will return results where either the name "Irving" or the name "Berlin" occurs.

  • Browse Music Subjects is recommended when searching for musical forms and topics.

  • Use an asterisk (*) to search for different endings of a word at the same time. For example: waltz* retrieves waltzing, waltzed, waltzes, etc.

  • Boolean Operators: Combine search terms using the Boolean operators AND, OR, and AND NOT between search words. For example:

    • and requires that all search terms be present in each record retrieved, e.g. waltzes and Mississippi

    • or requires that either search term be present in each record retrieved, e.g. love or romance

    • and not excludes a term from the search results, e.g. war and not civil

  • Public domain: To limit your search to music in the public domain, that is, music published prior to 1923, enter the year 1923 as a date limiter.

Tips on Browsing the Database

Use the Browse By options to browse the music database by a particular collection, by subject (forms and instrumentation and /or topic.

Use Browse or Search Sheet Music Cover Art to browse topics of sheet music cover art. The search option retrieves names and subjects associated with the cover art.

Music published after 1923 is not in the public domain. There will be no associated images, sound files or lyrics display for music published after 1923.

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Viewing Images

To view a larger image of the cover art or music to an item, click on the thumbnail image for the cover. These images will be automatically resized to fit the browser window. Alternatively, links to the pages of score display at the top of the enlarged cover image. These images will not be resized, and may display larger than the browser window, requiring scrolling.

If your search results list a text record and thumbnail image only for a particular title, and the associated image, sound and text files do not display: The music was published after 1923, and is not in the public domain. Image, sound and text files are not included for music published after 1923.

Use and Reproduction

Images of music in this database are only available for music that is in the public domain, published prior to 1923. The materials in the database have been made available for use in research, teaching and private study. For these purposes users may reproduce (print, make photocopies, or download) materials from this web site without prior permission, on condition that you provide proper attribution of the source in all copies.


For other uses of the materials from this web site ñ i.e., commercial products, publication, broadcast, mirroring, and anything else that does not fall under "fair use" (see copyright and citation below), please contact us.

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Copyright and Citation

Images and texts on these pages are intended for educational and research purposes. Music published after 1923 is not in the public domain. Image, sound and text files are not accessible for music published after 1923.

Approximately 62% of the sheet music in the Maine Music Box collections is in the public domain and 38% of the sheet music is still under copyright protection. For music that is published after 1923, users will find a thumbnail image and a text record only, not full images of the score or associated sound files.

The copyright law of the United States (Title 17, United States Code) governs the making of photocopies or other reproductions of copyrighted materials.

FAIR USE: Under certain conditions specified in the law, libraries and archives are authorized to furnish a photocopy or other reproduction. One of these specified conditions is that the photocopy or reproduction is not to be used for any purpose other than private study, scholarship, or research . If a user makes a request for, or later uses a photocopy or reproduction for purposes in excess of "fair use", that user may be liable for copyright infringement.

Privacy Policy

Certain pages on this site may ask for contact information. These may include contact forms, logins or feedback pages. The information collected by this site is used only for the educational aims of the site, to respond to visitor inquiries and to facilitate instructional functions. Information is not shared with or sold to any third party for any reason, and is not made available to other departments of the University of Maine without the express written permission of the person whose information is involved.

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Sensitive Materials

This site includes historical materials that may contain offensive language or negative stereotypes reflecting the culture or language of a particular period or place. These items are presented as part of the historical record and do not reflect the values and beliefs of the University of Maine, Fogler Library, the Bagaduce Music Lending Library, the Bangor Public Library, or the Institute of Museums and Libraries who provided funding in part for the project.

Obtaining the actual sheet music

The sheet music collection is housed at the Bagaduce Music Lending Library. Contact the Library for information on borrowing music from the collection.

Score manuscripts housed at the Bangor Public Library are available for reference use only.

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Technical Information
System Design, Indexing and Processing
Web Interface
Lyrics
Metadata
Inventory Control System
Data Delivery and Storage
Preservation Copies
Creating Associated Sound Files
System Hardware / Storage
Commercial Digitization – VTLS
Site Design

System Design, Indexing and Processing

Operating System: Windows 2000
Web Server: Internet Information Services 5.0
Database Server: SQL Server 2000
Database searches and displays: ASP scripts
Server side processing: VBScript
Client side processing: Javascript
Formatting: Cascading Style Sheets (CSS2)
Indexing Full text queries against full text indexes

Web Interface

The web interface provides for Keyword, Name, Subject, Art and Lyric searches as well as browsing by LC Subject (MARC 650), Local Subject (MARC 653) and Art Subject (MARC 650 Indicator 2 = 7), and Collection (based on BML catalog number MARC 001), Browsing is handled using the appropriate subject table because browse terms are not user-entered, but rather displayed in lists drawn from the database. Consequently user spelling is not a concern for retrieval.


Lyrics:

Lyrics are received in text format separate from the MARC records or images. They are processed by a lyric loader database hosted in MS-Access. After checking for primary key conflicts and other problems, lyrics are stamped with load date and batch number. A VBA program then examines lyric records for each piece of music and assigns a display sequence for the entire set of lyrics. The web scripts, to determine display order, use this sequence. The lyrics are then added to the SQL Server database through an ODBC connection.

Because names and words in lyrics are transcribed literally from the originals, they may not match modern spellings. For example, one piece lists “Words by William Shakspere” on the cover. For this reason, all searching is done using full-text queries against the full text indexes rather then literal queries against data in tables. The full-text indexer is capable of matching “Shakespeare” to “Shakspere” while a normal database query would fail to match this record.

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Metadata

Descriptive Metadata: VTLS provided access to a Virtua Cataloging Module where base MARC records with ten tags were created by VTLS staff and loaded into the Viruta database. Using image files the Music Box project cataloger enhanced the MARC records, assigned subject headings and performed name authority verification.

Authorities used: Library of Congress Authorities, Library of Congress Subject Headings, Art and Architecture Thesaurus, and the Library of Congress Thesaurus of Graphic Materials.

Administrative Metadata (TIFF files only): filename, resolution (pixels), bit depth, image height (pixels), image width (pixels), ICC color profile, date/timestamp, BML id.

Metadata Harvesting:

Descriptive metadata is mapped to the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set and made available using the Open Archives Initiative (OAI) provider service protocol running on the Maine Music Box Server. Records are currently harvested for an IMLS digitization projects at the University of Illnois at Champaign-Urbana.

Inventory Control System

An MS Access database is used to manage file inventory: receipt and processing of digital files, and storage in a directory structure. A VBScript program from the inventory database generates database records giving URLs of various files associated with a piece of music. The inventory of image and text files received (bitmap, jpeg, thumbnail, TIFF, lyrics and MARC) and sound files produced (MIDI, Scorch, DVD) is stored in the database on the server. A set of Access queries and VBScript programs are used to reconcile the inventory database with the actual contents of the server file system and the music database.

Data Delivery and Storage

Digital files (bitmap, TIFF, JPEG, thumbnail) are moved from the vendor to the Music Box server using four 200 GB external disk drives which were shipped back and forth between the vendor and the University. Programs were written to copy image and bitmap files from external drives to the appropriate directory on the server. Lyrics and MARC records files were delivered via FTP.

The system will require an estimated 3.63 terabytes of storage, the largest block being the TIFF archival files, which require 2.36 terabytes, followed by the bitmap files, which require an estimated 1.5 terabytes. Access images (jpeg and thumbnails) require 23 GB. The current system has 1.5 terabytes of storage. TIFF files are moved to another server, copied to DVD, and then stored on tape for the duration of the project. Bitmap files (used to create sound files) are removed from the server and stored on tape temporarily, once the associated sound file is created.

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Preservation Copies

TIFF files are copied from an external drive shipment to the DVD burning workstation, organized in DVD folders, a directory listing text file is created for each DVD, and the DVD is burned. Each DVD holds a maximum of 4.35 GB. Labels are printed for the DVD and its jewel case, each DVD is tested by selecting seven files at random to verify the quality of the burned image and contents before shipment to the Bagaduce Music Lending Library. The inventory database is updated with the DVD production date. An estimated 800 DVDs will be needed to create the project's archival/preservation copies.

Creating Associated Sound Files

All scores do not have an associated sound file. MIDI files are not created if the source document is poor or restricted to copyright. Criteria for creating an associated MIDI file for a score includes the following: if the music was written by a well-know composer; if it remains popular today; if it is significant to the study of popular culture of the time; if it has historical significance if it is representative of the social lives of the time, is important to the study of music, is maritime or Maine related.

Scorch files are created based on the recommendations of the Curriculum Advisory Board.

System Hardware

The Maine Music Box equipment is configured with 1.44 terabytes of usable space: Lian Li Aluminum server case, Intel P4 2.6ghz, 533FSB, 1.5GB RAM, 2-120GB system disks in a mirror set, 10-Seagate Ultra 320 SCSI3 disks 147GB each arranged in a RAID5 array, 1.47 terabyte array set (1.323 terabyte usable), total usable space (system disks plus data array) 1.44 terabytes, CDROM, floppy, keyboard, monitor, Windows 2000 server SP4, Internet Info Services 5.0, MS SQL Server 2000 SP3, Veritas Backup Exec with SQL Server Agent, Quantum DLT 40-80GB SCSI tape drive.

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Commercial Digitization

A contract was signed with VTLS for delivery of image and text files: bitmap, TIFF, JPEG, thumbnail, MARC (ten tags), lyrics, and administrative metadata. File specifications are as follows:

Bitmap: 300 dpi 1-bit
TIFF: 300 dpi RGB
JPEG: 72 dpi RGB
Thumbnail: 115 by 150 pixels
Lyrics: ASCII text

MARC fields: Title, Composer, Lyricist, Arranger, Illustrator, Artist, Lithographer, Publisher/Place/Date, BML Catalog Number

Administrative Metadata: filename, resolution (pixels), bit depth, image height (pixels), image width (pixels), ICC color profile, date/timestamp, BML id.

Site design

The first task in designing the site was to find ways to express visually what the Maine Music Box is and what it provides to its audience. The next was to identify page functions and menu requirements. Finally, pages were constructed to fulfill these design requirements and the demands of site functionality, while keeping the code behind the pages simple and direct for long-term ease of maintenance. The simplicity and universality of the design makes it extensible to other areas in the future.

The logo for Maine Music Box uses three kinds of symbols to create an emblem that expresses the project. The treble clef is a universally-recognized symbol of music which suffers from over-use as an image; the challenge was to avoid clichÈ while incorporating the grace and musical significance of the symbol. This was managed by making the clef translucent over a cluster of colored squares, so it seems to be arising from them, with the color predominating. The idea of the squares is drawn from the digital imaging that is fundamental to the musical and visual experience of the site. The colors are not exactly rainbow colors, but cover the spectrum completely. The bright but harmonious hues are a visual metaphor for the musical richness found on the site.

The richness of color of the logo necessitated a subdued context. Drawing on the logo colors for menu buttons would have diminished the power of the logo image by competing with it, and would have created too "loud" a color environment for visitor comfort. The lightness of feel of the pages is due to the subdued blues fading to white in menus and page elements. The colors of the logo are subtly echoed, but never overwhelm the purpose of the pages, which is to find music, listen, and study. Menus are simple and direct, and "breadcrumb" menus just above the page content keep visitors informed of where they are in the sometimes complex process of searching and evaluating.

The pages were created as HTML pages, and transformed by the site programmer into Active Server Pages (ASP) for search and display functionality. Cascading style sheets (CSS) are used for presentation purposes as much as possible.

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